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GLP-1 Receptor Agonists for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Pharmacist Focus on the Evolving Treatment Landscape
What do we Currently Know about the Cardiovascular Benefits of GLP-1 RAs? A Primer for Pharmacists - Part 2 (Monograph)
This educational activity is sponsored by Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC (PHE) and supported by an educational grant from Novo Nordisk Inc.
Heather P. Whitley, PharmD, BCPS, CDE
Associate Clinical Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Auburn University, Harrison School of Pharmacy
Heather P. Whitley, PharmD, BCPS, CDE has no actual or potential conflicts of interest in relation to this program.
The clinical reviewer, Jennifer M. Trujillo, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS, CDE, BC-ADM has served as a consultant to BD, Sanofi and Novo Nordisk.
Susanne Batesko, RN, BSN, Robin Soboti, RPh, as well as the planners, managers, and other individuals, not previously disclosed, who are in a position to control the content of Postgraduate Healthcare Education (PHE) continuing education activities hereby state that they have no relevant conflicts of interest and no financial relationships or relationships to products or devices during the past 12 months to disclose in relation to this activity. PHE is committed to providing participants with a quality learning experience and to improve clinical outcomes without promoting the financial interests of a proprietary business.
Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
Credits: 2.0 hours (0.2 ceu)
Type of Activity: Knowledge
Fee Information: There is no fee for this educational activity.
Estimated time to complete activity: 120 minutes
December 26, 2019
December 26, 2020
This accredited activity has been designed for pharmacists.
HOW TO EARN CREDIT
During the period December 26, 2019 to December 26, 2020 participants must 1) read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures; 2) view the educational activity; and 3) complete the posttest and evaluation form directly after the activity within a maximum of 60 days of participating in the activity. To answer the questions, click on your selected choice for each answer then proceed to the next question. Once completed, click on the Grade Exam button at the bottom of the page. Your posttest will automatically be graded. If you successfully complete the posttest (score of 70% or higher), your statement of participation will be made available immediately. Click on the View Statement of Participation link and print the statement for your records. If you receive a score lower than 70%, you will receive a message notifying you that you did not pass the posttest. You will have 2 opportunities to pass the posttest. To receive Credit, you must provide your date of birth and NABP number. All Credit information will be uploaded into CPE monitor within 30 days.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for approximately 90% to 95% of diabetes cases and is challenging to manage, with contributing pathophysiologic abnormalities ranging from predominant insulin resistance with relative insulin deficiency to predominant insulin secretory defect with insulin resistance. The leading cause of death in people with T2DM is cardiovascular disease (CVD), and patients with T2DM are at an increased risk of multiple cardiovascular comorbidities, such as heart failure and stroke. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have emerged as a class of glucose-lowering medications capable of reducing cardiovascular risk while also helping patients achieve individualized glycemic goals; however, many clinicians remain unaware of both emerging cardiovascular and renal risk reduction data with these agents and recommendations for appropriate use of these agents in clinical practice.
Upon completion of this activity, the participant should be able to:
- Review cardiovascular outcome trials for GLP-1RA available for use in the United States
- List proposed mechanisms through which cardiovascular benefit is exhibited by some GLP-1 RAs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- Identify GLP-1 RA which FDA-approved cardiovascular specific indications for use in the management of type 2 diabetes.
REQUIRED COMPUTER HARDWARE/SOFTWARE
Please ensure the computer system you plan to use meets the following minimum requirements:
- Operating System: Windows 98 or higher & Macintosh 2.2 or higher
- Internet Browser (Mac &/Windows): Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher, Google Chrome, Safari 5.0.6 or higher, Firefox 3.0.3 or higher & Opera 5 or higher
- Broadband Internet connection: Cable, High-speed DSL & any other medium that is internet accessible
- Monitor Screen Resolution: 320 x 480 or higher
- Media Viewing Requirements: Adobe Reader, Microsoft PowerPoint, Flash Player & HTML5
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use and Disclaimer
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC and Novo Nordisk Inc. Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without an evaluation of their patients' conditions and current medications, including the identification of possible contraindications regarding the dangers of use and a review of any applicable manufacturer's product information, as well as a comparison with the recommendations of other authorities.
The author, sponsor, and publisher of this continuing education activity have made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all information contained herein is accurate in accordance with the latest available scientific knowledge at the time of acceptance for publication. However, because information regarding drugs (their administration, dosages, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, special warnings, precautions, etc.) is subject to constant change, the reader is advised to check the manufacturer's package insert for information concerning recommended dosages and potential problems and cautions prior to dispensing or administering the drug. Special precautions should be taken when a drug is new, or highly toxic, or is unfamiliar to the dispenser or administrant. This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Neither the publisher nor sponsor promotes the use of any agent outside of approved labeling. Statements made in this monograph have not been evaluated by the FDA. Nutritional products discussed are not intended for the diagnosis, treatment, cure, or prevention of any disease.