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Applying Institutional Susceptibility Data in Treatment Decisions for HAP/VAP

This educational activity is sponsored by the Academy for Continued Healthcare Learning (ACHL) and supported by an educational grant from Merck & Company.


James Lewis II, PharmD, FIDSA
Infectious Disease Clinical Pharmacy Supervisor
Co-Director of Antibiotic Stewardship
Department of Pharmacy
Oregon Health & Science University
Portland, OR

Jason M. Pogue, PharmD, BCPS, BCIDP
Clinical Professor, Infectious Diseases
Department of Clinical Pharmacy
University of Michigan College of Pharmacy
Ann Arbor, MI


The Academy for Continued Healthcare Learning (ACHL) requires that the faculty participating in CPE activity disclose all affiliations or other financial relationships (1) with the manufacturers of any commercial product(s) and/or provider(s) of commercial services discussed in an educational presentation and (2) with any commercial supporters of the activity. All conflicts of interest have been resolved prior to this CPE activity.

The following financial relationships have been provided:

James Lewis II, PharmD
Consultant: Merck & Company

Jason Pogue, PharmD
Consultant: Merck & Company, Shionogi

Discussion of Off-Label, Investigational, or Experimental Drug/Device Use: None


Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

UAN: 0396-0000-20-044-H01-P
Credits: 1.25 hour (0.125 ceu)

Type of Activity: Knowledge
Media: Internet
Fee Information: There is no fee for this educational activity.
Estimated time to complete activity: 75 minutes


November 12, 2020


November 12, 2021


This activity is intended for pharmacists and infectious disease specialists who care for patients at risk of serious infection.

How to Earn Credit

This activity will take approximately 75 minutes to complete. To receive credit, participants are required to complete the pretest, view the online activity, and complete the posttest and evaluation. To receive credit, 66% must be achieved on the posttest. To receive credit, you must provide your date of birth and NABP number. All credit information will be uploaded into CPE monitor within 30 days. There is no fee to participate in the activity or for the generation of the certificate. For questions, contact Katlyn Cooper at kcooper@achlcme.org


Antibacterial resistance persists as a major threat to public health; in fact, 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result. Antibacterial resistance can be present in any type of bacterial infection, including both HAP and VAP. The combination of HAP and VAP alone constitutes the most common cause of death among all hospital-acquired infections, with mortality rates up to 33%. Therefore, it is imperative that pharmacists involved in HAP/VAP care understand 1) the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance, 2) the key characteristics of the Gram-negative antibiotic armamentarium, and 3) optimal antimicrobial implementation strategies.


Upon completion of this program, participants should be better able to:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens
  • Summarize the salient features and critical differences between antibiotics for use against Gram-negative pathogens
  • Describe strategies to optimize antimicrobial therapy to ensure effectiveness of antibiotics and reduce resistance


  1. Risk Factors and Microbiology
  2. IDSA and ERS/ESCMID/ALAT Recommendations
  3. HAP/VAP Armamentarium
  4. Resistance Considerations


Please ensure the computer system you plan to use meets the following minimum requirements:

  • Operating System: Windows 98 or higher & Macintosh 2.2 or higher
  • Internet Browser (Mac &/ Windows): Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher, Google Chrome, Safari 5.0.6 or higher, Firefox 3.0.3 or higher & Opera 5 or higher
  • Broadband Internet connection: Cable, High-speed DSL & any other medium that is internet accessible
  • Peripherals: Computer speakers or headphones
  • Monitor Screen Resolution: 320 x 480 or higher
  • Media Viewing Requirements: Adobe Reader, Microsoft PowerPoint, Flash Player & HTML5

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use and Disclaimer

The content for this activity was developed independently of the commercial supporter. All materials are included with permission. The opinions expressed are those of the faculty and are not to be construed as those of the publisher or grantor.

This educational activity was planned and produced in accordance with the ACPE Accreditation Standards for Continuing Pharmacy Education. Recommendations involving clinical medicine in a continuing education activity must be based on evidence that is accepted within the profession of medicine as adequate justification for their indications and contraindications in the care of patients. All scientific research referred to, reported, or used in CPE in support or justification of a patient care recommendation must conform to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis.

This CPE activity might describe the off-label, investigational, or experimental use of medications and/or devices that may exceed their FDA-approved labeling. Physicians should consult the current manufacturers’ prescribing information for these products. ACHL requires the speaker to disclose that a product is not labeled for the use under discussion.