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A Conceptual Framework Approach to Guide Decision-Making to Combat Gram-negative Resistance

This activity is jointly provided by Center for Independent Healthcare Education and Vemco MedEd.

This activity is supported by an educational grant from Merck & Co., Inc.


December 30, 2021


December 30, 2022

Educational Need

Antimicrobial resistance is a critical public health and safety challenge. Over the past decade, healthcare systems have been inundated with infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. It is estimated that antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are responsible for nearly 2.9 million infections annually in the US, attributing to 35,900 deaths.  The most important predictor of patient outcomes for serious bacterial infections, and perhaps the only modifiable factor, is timely administration of an antimicrobial regimen effective against the causative pathogen. The expansion of the antimicrobial armamentarium and rapid diagnostics have given clinicians greater ability in managing resistant infections.

Concept maps have been proposed to guide treatment selection based on the information gathered for each patient situation. Antimicrobial ‘precision medicine’ in making clinical decisions is increasingly possible now with the availability of advanced tools that provide timely information about the patient and pathogen. Through a collaborative discussion with multidisciplinary faculty, this educational activity builds clinicians’ knowledge and skills in the management of MDR Gram-negative infections, while increasing the understanding of how to utilize the latest tools as part of antimicrobial stewardship efforts.

Target Audience

This activity meets the needs of pharmacists and other healthcare professionals in a variety of practice settings, including large and small healthcare systems, outpatient clinics, managed care organizations, long-term care facilities, and academia who are responsible for caring for patients with serious bacterial infections.

Learning Objectives

At the conclusion of the educational activity, the learner should be able to:

  • Explain the impact of local epidemiological trends and resistance mechanisms of Gram-negative bacteria in guiding management decisions
  • Evaluate the roles of newer antimicrobial agents in targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens
  • Utilize a conceptual framework approach when making clinical decisions for serious bacterial infections based on causative organism, local epidemiology, and patient factors

Educational Program

This program is designed to introduce clinicians to the concept map approach to address key unmet needs when managing serious Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as timely diagnosis, appropriate initial treatment selection, and assessing outcomes. Topics discussed via a collaborative discussion among the expert panel include:

  • Gram-negative resistance mechanisms
  • Impact of local epidemiology
  • Clinical data of newer antimicrobials targeting MDR Gram-negative bacteria
  • Patient stratification to guide treatment selection
  • Pathogen-specific approaches when managing nosocomial pneumonia
  • Incorporating concept maps in clinical practice
  • Patient case examples to help demonstrate how to apply the conceptual framework for specific patient scenarios when making clinical decisions 


George H. Karam, MD, MACP
Paula Garvey Manship Chair of Medicine
Department of Medicine
Louisiana State University School of Medicine in New Orleans
Baton Rouge Branch Campus
Baton Rouge, LA

Jason M. Pogue, PharmD, BCPS, BCIDP
Clinical Professor
Department of Clinical Pharmacy
University of Michigan College of Pharmacy
Ann Arbor, MI

Patricia (Trish) Simner, PhD, D(ABMM)
Associate Professor of Pathology
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Director of the Medical Bacteriology and Infectious Disease Sequencing Laboratories
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Baltimore, MD


acpeCenter for Independent Healthcare Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider for continuing pharmacy education. Center has assigned 1.5 contact hours (0.15 CEUs) of continuing pharmacy education credits for participating in this activity.

ACPE UAN:  0473-9999-21-009-H01-P
Activity type: Application-based
Fee: There is no fee to participate in this activity.

For questions regarding the accreditation of this activity, please contact us at info@jointsponsor.com

Method of Participation and Instruction for Credit

  1. Review the entire CPE information including target audience, learning objectives, and disclosures.
  2. Review the activity in its entirety.
  3. Complete the Online Post Test and Evaluation
  4. Please note that to receive credit you must achieve a score of at least 80%.
  5. The information that you participated will be uploaded to CPE Monitor and you will be able to access your credits from the profile you set up with NABP. For more information, please visit http://www.nabp.net/.

Disclosure of Financial Relationships with Ineligible Companies

Center for Independent Healthcare Education and Vemco MedEd fully comply with the Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Education in development of CME/CPE activities. We require the full disclosure of financial relationships with ineligible companies from all individuals in a position to influence the content of a certified activity, in any amount occurring within the past 24 months. All relevant financial relationship is identified by the provider and mitigated to prevent inserting commercial bias into content. All identified relevant financial relationships are disclosed to the learners prior to the activity. The faculty is further required to disclose discussion of off-label uses in their presentations.


George Karam, MD has relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose:
Advisory Board: Merck & Co., Inc.
Consultant: Merck & Co., Inc., Shionogi Inc.
All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Dr. Karam does not discuss any off-label uses.

Jason Pogue, PharmD has relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose:
Consultant: Merck & Co., Inc., Melinta Therapeutics, Shionogi Inc., Qpex Biopharma, GSK, Entasis, Utility Therapeutics
All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Dr. Pogue does not intend to discuss any off-label uses.

Trish Simner, PhD has relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose:
Research support: BD Diagnostics, Accelerate Diagnostics, OpGen, Inc., Affinity Biosensors
All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.
Dr. Simner does not discusses off-label uses.

No (other) speakers, authors, planners or content reviewers have any relevant financial relationships to disclose. Content review confirmed that the content was developed in a fair, balanced manner free from commercial bias. Disclosure of a relationship is not intended to suggest or condone commercial bias in any presentation, but it is made to provide participants with information that might be of potential importance to their evaluation of a presentation.

Copyright Statement

Copyright © 2021 Vemco MedEd. All Rights Reserved. Permission for accreditation use granted to Center for Independent Healthcare Education.