Module 1. Anatomical and Physiological Considerations for Drug Therapy in Non-Human Species
This activity is for pharmacists and is sponsored by and is sponsored by Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC (PHE).
There has been no commercial support for this activity.
Gigi Davidson, RPh, DICVP
Director of Clinical Pharmacy Services
North Carolina State Veterinary Hospital
Gigi Davidson, RPh, DICVP has no relevant affiliation or financial relationship or relationship to products or devices with a commercial interest related to the content of this activity to disclose.
The reviewer, Darrell Hulisz, RPh, PharmD has no relevant affiliation or financial relationship or relationship to products or devices with a commercial interest related to the content of this activity to disclose.
Susanne Batesko, MSHF, BSN, RN, Mary Camillo, and the planners, managers, and other individuals, not previously disclosed, who are in a position to control the content of Postgraduate Healthcare Education (PHE) continuing education (CE) activities hereby state that they have no relevant conflicts of interest and no financial relationships or relationships to products or devices during the past 12 months to disclose in relation to this activity. PHE is committed to providing participants with a quality learning experience and to improve clinical outcomes without promoting the financial interests of a proprietary business.
Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
Credits: 2.0 hours (0.20 ceu)
Type of Activity: Knowledge
Fee Information: Included in Pharmacist Veterinary Certificate Program registration or $7.95.
Estimated time to complete activity: 120 minutes
October 5, 2022
October 5, 2025
This accredited activity has been designed for pharmacists.
HOW TO OBTAIN CREDIT
During the period October 5, 2022, through October 5, 2025, participants must 1) read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures; 2) study the educational activity; and 3) complete the post-test and the evaluation form. To answer the questions, click on your selected choice for each answer then proceed to the next question. Once completed, click on Grade Exam at the bottom of the page. Your post-test will automatically be graded. If you successfully complete the post-test (score of 70% or higher), your statement of participation will be made available immediately. Click on the View Statement of Participation link and print the statement for your records. If you receive a score lower than 70%, you will receive a message notifying you that you did not pass the post-test. You will have 2 opportunities to pass the post-test. To receive Credit, you must provide your date of birth and NABP number. All Credit information will be uploaded into CPE monitor within 30 days.
The goal of this educational activity is to introduce pharmacists to important anatomical and physiological features of non-human patients that have implications for drug therapy. This information is necessary for pharmacists to (1) provide competent pharmaceutical care and monitoring for animal patients and (2) offer rational consultation to veterinarians seeking to use new human drugs in animal patients.
Upon completion of this program, the participant should be able to:
- Identify important anatomical considerations that influence drug therapy in non-human patients
- Explain how species-specific physiological adaptations affect drug disposition and medication therapy outcomes
- Recognize important thresholds for vital signs in non-human patients
- Describe the impact of metabolic limitations on drug disposition for various non-human species.
REQUIRED COMPUTER HARDWARE/SOFTWARE
Please ensure the computer system you plan to use meets the following minimum requirements:
- Operating System: Windows 98 or higher & Macintosh 2.2 or higher
- Internet Browser (Mac & Windows): Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher, Google Chrome, Safari 5.0.6 or higher, Firefox 3.0.3 or higher, & Opera 5 or higher
- Broadband Internet connection: Cable, High-speed DSL & any other medium that is internet accessible
- Peripherals: Computer speakers or headphones
- Monitor Screen Resolution: 320 x 480 or higher
- Media Viewing Requirements: Adobe Reader, Microsoft PowerPoint, Flash Player & HTML5
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use and Disclaimer
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC. Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patients' conditions, and possible contraindications on dangers in use, (review of any applicable manufacturer's product information) and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.
The author, sponsor, and publisher of this continuing education activity have made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all information contained herein is accurate in accordance with the latest available scientific knowledge at the time of acceptance for publication. However, because information regarding drugs (their administration, dosages, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, special warnings, precautions, etc.) is subject to constant change, the reader is advised to check the manufacturer's package insert for information concerning recommended dosages and potential problems and cautions prior to dispensing or administering the drug. Special precautions should be taken when a drug is new, or highly toxic, or is unfamiliar to the dispenser or administrant. This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Neither the publisher nor sponsor promotes the use of any agent outside of approved labeling. Statements made in this activity have not been evaluated by the FDA. Nutritional products discussed are not intended for the diagnosis, treatment, cure, or prevention of any disease.