Optimizing the Use of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists to Meet Individualized Diabetes Management Goals: What Pharmacists Need to Know

The Evolving Role of GLP-1 RAs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (Part 1 of a 2-Part Series)

This educational activity is sponsored by Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC (PHE) and supported by an educational grant from NovoNordisk.


Joshua J. Neumiller, PharmD, CDCES, FADCES, FASCP
Vice Chair & Allen I. White Distinguished Professor
Department of Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Washington State University
Spokane, WA

Heather P. Whitley, PharmD, BCPS, CDCES
Clinical Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Auburn University Harrison College of Pharmacy
Auburn, AL 


Dr. Neumiller has disclosed that he has served as a consultant for Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly and Sanofi, and has received fees for non-CE services from Dexcom.

Dr. Whitley has no relevant affiliations or financial relationships with a commercial interest to disclose.

The clinical reviewer, Susan Cornell, BS, PharmD, CDCES, FAPhA, FADCES has disclosed that she has received fees for non-CME services and consulting from Novo Nordisk.

Susanne Batesko, MSHF, BSN, RN, Robin Soboti, RPh, and Susan R. Grady, MSN, RN as well as the planners, managers, and other individuals, not previously disclosed, who are in a position to control the content of Postgraduate Healthcare Education (PHE) continuing education (CE) activities hereby state that they have no relevant conflicts of interest and no financial relationships or relationships to products or devices during the past 12 months to disclose in relation to this activity. PHE is committed to providing participants with a quality learning experience and to improve clinical outcomes without promoting the financial interests of a proprietary business. All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.


acpePostgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
UAN: 0430-0000-23-083-H01-P
Credits: 1.25 hour (0.125 ceu)

Type of Activity: Application
Media: Internet

Fee Information: There is no fee. This is a free continuing education activity.
Estimated time to complete activity: 75 minutes


October 20, 2023


October 17, 2024


This accredited activity has been designed for Pharmacists.


Participants must 1) read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures; 2) view the educational activity; and 3) complete the posttest and evaluation form directly after the activity within a maximum of 60 days of participating in the activity. To answer the questions, click on your selected choice for each answer then proceed to the next question. Once completed, click on the Grade Exam button at the bottom of the page. Your posttest will automatically be graded. If you successfully complete the posttest (score of 70% or higher), your statement of participation will be made available immediately. Click on the View Statement of Participation link and print the statement for your records. If you receive a score lower than 70%, you will receive a message notifying you that you did not pass the posttest. You will have 2 opportunities to pass the posttest. To receive Credit, you must provide your date of birth and NABP number. All Credit information will be uploaded into CPE monitor within 30 days.


The goal of part 1 or this 2-part educational series is to provide pharmacists with up-to-date knowledge of evolving evidence and guidelines promoting early initiation and optimization of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) therapy including current guideline recommendations for use of GLP-1 RAs to improve metabolic and cardiorenal outcomes, identification of patients with type 2 diabetes who can benefit from GLP-1 RA therapy based on individualized factors (e.g., comorbidities), and key differences and similarities among currently available GLP-1 RAs.


Upon completion of this program, participants should be better able to:

  • Describe the mechanisms of action of GLP-1 RAs and highlight their robust impact on glycemia and weight
  • Discuss evidence and current guideline recommendations supporting early use of GLP-1 RAs to optimize metabolic management and mitigate cardiorenal risk
  • Formulate approaches to effectively manage patients with T2D and optimize the use of GLP-1 RAs to improve outcomes


Please ensure the computer system you plan to use meets the following minimum requirements:

  • Operating System: Windows 98 or higher & Macintosh 2.2 or higher
  • Internet Browser (Mac & Windows): Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher, Google Chrome, Safari 5.0.6 or higher, Firefox 3.0.3 or higher, & Opera 5 or higher
  • Broadband Internet connection: Cable, High-speed DSL & any other medium that is internet accessible
  • Peripherals: Computer speakers or headphones
  • Monitor Screen Resolution: 320 x 480 or higher
  • Media Viewing Requirements: Adobe Reader, Microsoft PowerPoint, Flash Player & HTML5

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use and Disclaimer

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of Postgraduate Healthcare Education, LLC, or NovoNordisk. Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patients' conditions, and possible contraindications on dangers in use, (review of any applicable manufacturer's product information) and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

The author, sponsor, and publisher of this continuing education activity have made all reasonable efforts to ensure that all information contained herein is accurate in accordance with the latest available scientific knowledge at the time of acceptance for publication. However, because information regarding drugs (their administration, dosages, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, special warnings, precautions, etc.) is subject to constant change, the reader is advised to check the manufacturer's package insert for information concerning recommended dosages and potential problems and cautions prior to dispensing or administering the drug. Special precautions should be taken when a drug is new, or highly toxic, or is unfamiliar to the dispenser or administrant. This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Neither the publisher nor sponsor promotes the use of any agent outside of approved labeling. Statements made in this activity have not been evaluated by the FDA.