The Critical Role of Managed Care Pharmacists in Optimizing Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Patients with Heart Failure

Provided by the Academy for Continued Healthcare Learning (ACHL).

Supported by an independent medical educational grant from American Regent, Inc.


November 17, 2023

Expiration Date

November 17, 2024


Despite evidence-based interventions to prevent or manage heart failure (HF), poor HF-related outcomes persist as evidenced by the number of preventable HF-related hospitalizations and high readmission rates. Moreover, the economic burden that HF places on the health care system is significant and is projected to rise as the population ages and survival improves. To address these issues, pharmacists can improve adherence to guideline recommendations for the use of intravenous (IV) iron therapy for patients with HF and iron deficiency (ID) and develop treatment pathways and implement formulary strategies that make IV iron available to patients. 


Heart failure (HF) continues to be a global epidemic with high morbidity and mortality, considerable healthcare costs, and hospital admissions and readmissions. Iron deficiency (ID), irrespective of the presence of anemia, is a common comorbidity in patients with HF that can lead to worsening of HF symptoms and decreased quality of life. Yet, overall awareness of ID in HF is low. A diagnosis of ID in patients with HF can be challenging with new recommendations calling for monitoring of ID more frequently and more broadly, not just at the time of a HF diagnosis. ID in the HF setting is also undertreated despite guideline recommendations and accumulating data on the benefits of intravenous (IV) iron repletion. Administration of IV iron across providers and hospital and outpatient settings requires collaboration and coordination. Pharmacists can play a key role in identifying at-risk patients, mitigating barriers to use, improving treatment adherence, and outlining the benefits versus risks to support formulary management of IV iron formulations, reduce hospital readmissions, and improve patient outcomes.


Upon completion of this activity, pharmacists will be able to:

  • Interpret clinical data of intravenous iron repletion for the treatment of iron deficiency in HF patients
  • Outline strategies to facilitate the use of IV iron for ID in HF patients based on the current evidence, guideline recommendations and patient reported outcomes
  • Discuss the full clinical and economic impact of IV iron in patients with both chronic and acute HF beyond the effects on hospitalization and mortality
  • Identify the role of the managed care pharmacist in the transitions of care for patients with ID and anemia in HF to ensure appropriate use and monitoring of parenteral iron HF


This educational activity was designed for hospital and managed care pharmacists.


Stormi Gale, PharmD, BCCP, BCPS, FHFSA
Clinical Pharmacist
Heart and Vascular Institute
Novant Health
Huntersville, NC
B. Andrew Mardis, PharmD, BCCP, BCTXP, BCPS
Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, Advanced Heart Failure
Prisma Health–Midlands
Affiliate Clinical Assistant Professor
University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy
Columbia, SC C
Muthiah Vaduganathan, MD, MPH
Cardiologist, Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA


The Academy for Continued Healthcare Learning (ACHL) requires that the faculty participating in an accredited continuing education activity disclose all affiliations or other financial relationships within 24 months (1) with the manufacturers of any commercial product(s) and/or provider(s) of commercial services discussed in an educational presentation and (2) with any ineligible companies. All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated prior to this activity.
The following financial relationships have been provided:

This CME/CE activity might describe the off-label, investigational, or experimental use of medications and/or devices that may exceed their FDA-approved labeling. Physicians should consult the current manufacturers’ prescribing information for these products. ACHL requires the speaker to disclose that a product is not labeled for the use under discussion.

Discussion of Off-Label, Investigational, or Experimental Drug/Device Use: None

Stormi Gale, PharmD, BCCP, BCPS, FHFSA
No financial relationships to disclose

Muthiah Vaduganathan, MD, MPH
Sources of Funding for Research: American Regent, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Baxter Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cytokinetics, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Pharmacosmos, Relypsa, Roche Diagnostics, Sanofi, and Tricog Health
Advisory Boards: American Regent, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Baxter Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cytokinetics, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Pharmacosmos, Relypsa, Roche Diagnostics, Sanofi, and Tricog Health
Speakers' Bureau: American Regent, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Baxter Healthcare, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cytokinetics, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Pharmacosmos, Relypsa, Roche Diagnostics, Sanofi, and Tricog Health
Clinical Investigator:  AstraZeneca, Galmed, Novartis, Bayer AG, Occlutech, and Impulse Dynamics

B. Andrew Mardis, PharmD, BCCP, BCTXP, BCPS
Consulting Agreements: Wolters-Kluwer
Speakers' Bureau: AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Lilly
Advisory Board Member: Boehringer-Ingelheim, Lilly


ACHL staff members and others involved with the planning, development, and review of the content for this activity have no relevant affiliations or financial relationships to disclose.


acpeThe Academy for Continued Healthcare Learning is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

This activity has been approved for 1.25 contact hours.

ACPE Universal Activity Number: 0396-0000-23-032-H01-P

Activity Type: Application

Fee Information: There is no fee to participate in this activity


This activity will take approximately 75 minutes to complete. To receive credit, learners are required to complete the pretest, view the online activity, and complete the posttest and evaluation. To receive credit, 75% must be achieved on the posttest. There is no fee to participate in the activity or for the generation of the certificate.

Partial credit may not be awarded for CPE; participation in the complete activity is required to receive credit.


Module #1: Overview of Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure & Recognizing Iron Deficiency (15 mins)
Module #2: Treatment of Iron Deficiency Across the Heart Failure Spectrum (19 mins)
Module #3: Practical Approaches to IV Iron Administration (21 mins)
Module #4: Cases and Panel Discussions (20 mins)
Module #5: Question & Answer Highlights (5 mins)


The content for this activity was developed independently of any ineligible company. All materials are included with permission. The opinions expressed are those of the faculty and are not to be construed as those of the publisher or grantor(s).

This educational activity was planned and produced in accordance with the ACCME Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Education. Recommendations involving clinical medicine in a continuing medical education (CME/CE) activity must be based on evidence that is accepted within the profession of medicine as adequate justification for their indications and contraindications in the care of patients. All scientific research referred to, reported, or used in CME/CE in support or justification of a patient care recommendation must conform to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis.


Please ensure the computer system you plan to use meets the following minimum requirements:

  • Active Internet connection (DSL or Cable). Dial-up connection will have constant buffering problem.
  • Compatible with Windows PC and MAC (256 MB of RAM or higher)
  • Activity is best viewed on Internet Explorer 10.0 or higher, Safari 5.0 or higher and Firefox 29.0 or higher
  • Adobe Flash Player 12.0 (or higher). Click here to download Adobe Flash Player for free.
  • Adobe Reader to print certificate. Click here to download Adobe Reader for free.
  • Allow ActiveX controls to run on your computer: If the yellow strip appears on the top of your web browser while running the Webcast, right click on it and select Allow blocked contents to run.
  • Turn the Pop-up blocker off: On the Tools menu, point to Pop-up Blocker, and then click Turn Off Pop-up Blocker

Copyright Statement

© 2023 Academy for Continued Healthcare Learning

Academy for Continued Healthcare Learning
230 West Monroe Street, Suite 2300
Chicago, Illinois 60606
Ph (877) 444-8435